Thursday, March 19, 2020
How to Deal With Having No Friends in College So, you are almost ready to head off to college? It is an exciting time in any studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life Ã¢â¬â you get to leave high school behind and embark on a new adventure. However, it can also be a daunting prospect for many people. While in high school, you have had several years to build up your group of friends and now it is likely that you are all headed off to different colleges Ã¢â¬â maybe even hundreds of miles apart. What are you going to do if you end up making no friends in college as a freshman? Believe it or not, this is something that even the most confident of people worry about! ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why we have put together a few tips for how to deal with I have no friends in college situation. Start with the Classroom The most obvious place to start if you need to find new friends is in your classroom. Talk to your classmates Ã¢â¬â after all, you are doing the same course, so you must have at least one shared interest? A great way to make friends with classmates is to form a study group. This is a win-win situation since you are going to have support when exams and assignments roll around plus you get the chance to get to know people better and perhaps form some deeper friendships. Assignments and exam prep are sure to give you something to bond over and if that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the basis for a lasting friendship we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what is! If you still havent chosen classes you are going to attend, consider the most fun classes. How Do You End Up with No Friends in College? As we have already noted, most people starting college will be coming to campus without their high school friends (you will miss them so much, wont you?) However, there can be other reasons why college students find themselves without friends on campus. Perhaps you have transferred from another school mid-semester? Did you change your major and now have a totally different schedule to your former course mates? It could even be that you just want to break away from your current social group due to differing goals or opinion. Whatever the reason for your limited social circle, there are plenty of ways to make new friends. Join a Club or Society If you have no friends in college as a sophomore, then it is time to put yourself out there and start meeting new people. One of the great things about college is that you will find a wide variety of extra-curricular clubs and societies. Think about what sort of activities you enjoy or subjects you would like to learn more about and see if there is a suitable club you can join. This is going to give you direct access to people who share similar interests giving you a great foundation on which to build a friendship. It might take a few weeks to start fitting in to an existing group, but before long you will be inviting other members for coffee or other social activities. Get to Know Others in Your Dorm If you find yourself with no friends in college and you are staying on campus, then your dorms are a great place to start. Aside from your room-mate, make an effort to talk to others on your hall or even on other floors. It is common for dorms to hold social events in the common area from time to time, so make an effort to attend. Even if there are no scheduled events in your dorm you should make a point of spending time in the lounge, so you can meet others living in the building. Maybe you could even think about throwing a dorm party on your own? Look for Friends in Library or Cafeteria It is also important NOT to spend all of your time in the dorms. Make an effort to go out around campus. Study in the library instead of in your room. Eat your lunch outside on a nice day and strike up a conversation with others who are doing the same. You wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make new friends if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t make the effort to get out and meet people. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t do that hiding away in your dorm! DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Be Afraid to Look Off Campus If you have no friends in college, donÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to try looking off campus. Check out local coffee shops, cafes and restaurants off campus and you might meet some cool people. You could also try volunteering somewhere or going to concerts and events off campus. You might be surprised how many people from college hang out in these places too Ã¢â¬â plus its good to get away from school from time to time! Always Remember You Are Not Alone It can feel like you are the only person on campus who has no friends in college, but the truth is that you are not alone. Even although it seems like everyone else is having a blast surrounded by great friends, you are certainly not the only one struggling with socializing. Never forget that it is perfectly natural to feel out of place in a new environment. Remember that: Others are in the same boat and are nervous about finding new friends at college too. Try not to make such a big deal out of finding new friends. Just take the time to go out and have fun, meet new people and you will naturally start to build relationships with people. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be scared to talk to people. Strike up a conversation and suggest hanging out together. Others feel as much nervous about finding new friends at college as you. All it takes is for one of you to make the first move. If you need even more help with not making friends in college, you should also read our post on how not to be an outcast in college. In conclusion, there is no need to be too concerned about ending up being that one person with no friends in college. It is likely that you are going to find a much more diverse group of people on campus than you encountered at high school which is going to make it easier to find people you have something in common with. Take some time out to socialize and you will soon find some like-minded people to hang with.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Arabic Loanwords In English Arabic Loanwords In English Arabic Loanwords In English By Sharon The Arabic language has contributed hundreds of words to the English language by many different routes. Thats partly because in what my daughter likes to call the olden days (from around 700AD to the Middle Ages), the Arabic kingdoms had a great influence on Europe and the world. In part this was through colonisation, but there were also many great mathematicians, alchemists and astronomers. Of course, language development is not that simple. Not all the words that have entered English via Arabic originate from that language. Linguistically speaking, the Arabs borrowed as freely as they lent and their language included words originating from Spanish, Latin, Greek, Persian, Hebrew and many others. Many of the words start with the Arabic definite article al, which also appears in silent form without the l in words such as admiral. Heres a list of some of the common words that the Arabic language has bequeathed to English. admiral adobe alchemy via Greek alcohol the quintessence of earthly substances, originally from alchemy alcove algebra restoration of missing parts, later used in a 9th century mathematical book written by a Persian scientist whose name gave us algorithm almanac amber apricot arsenal factory assassin hashish user artichoke aubergine burnoose via Latin caliber carat via Greek checkmate coffee possibly from the name Kefa, where the coffee plant originates cotton divan elixir medicinal potion, via Greek gauze from the Persian for raw silk gazelle genie giraffe harem hashish henna jasmine from Arabic via French kohl lilac, from Persian for indigo lime loofah lute magazine storehouse mocha named after a city in Yemen monsoon mummy via Persian muslin nadir orange safari from Arabic via Swahili saffron sequin sugar tamarind tariff typhoon zenith zero Theres a fun quiz on Arabic loan words here and more words can be found here. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Words for Facial ExpressionsAbstract Nouns from AdjectivesPreposition Mistakes #3: Two Idioms
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Analysis of video - Essay Example For example, they have right to acquire wealth, they can take legal action against another person and they can also be prosecuted in the court for their misconduct. Corporations in the United States and the rest of the nations are gaining huge influence over normal persons and as a result, they often abuse the rights of the individuals in the society (Bakan, 2012). This is because they are less conscious about the needs of the people since their endeavor is to achieve their goals of amassing affluence irrespective of the impact of their actions in the community. Nature of CorporationÃ¢â¬â¢s Institutions According to Bakan (2012) corporations are basically established to with a motive of generating wealth or their shareholders. Unlike ordinary persons, corporations lack conscious for the human feelings hence will do anything in order to acquire more wealth. They subject human beings into torture due to their activities without minding about their actions (Banerjee, http://www.google .co.ke/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Subhabrata+Bobby+Banerjee%222009). Although normal human being would not subject their fellow human beings into immense sufferings, corporations have no concern for human life. Their focus is to engage in activities that will generate wealth for the investors. In the modern society, corporations are enjoying extreme autonomy which a normal person cannot enjoy. This is because corporations are made up of different individuals and since their focus is on the returns they will make, they have a lot of wealth which they use to defend their positions against all evils they commit (Macfarlane, 2002). This prevents individuals from enjoying their liberty granted by the constitution. Consequences of Corporations Institutions in the Society The law of the nation requires individuals to enjoy liberty without partiality by any one. However, corporations are taking advantage of the needy people in the society and convert them into a supply of affordable labour (Macfarlane, 2002). They pay them low wages just or maintenance of their lives. They want to law taxes from their income. Corporations aim at amassing immense wealth from the public while offering negligence assistance to the society. For example, they pay their workers very low wages, abuse children, paying low taxes by failing to declare their entire gains from their trading activities (Bakan, 2012). The corporations are trying to acquire maximum wealth from the nation while they want to offer little in return. The negative impacts of the corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ activities are affecting people who do not gain anything from the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s (Bakan, 2012). For example, damping of the wastes materials and emissions due to their production activities has detrimental effects of the environment. The emissions of poisonous substances are adversely affecting human beings, aquatic life and vegetation. They are the major causes of cancer disease which is continuing to take away the lives of many people. Corporations such as Monsanto and Syngenta among others use chemicals which have detrimental effects on the surroundings and on human beings. Some corporations spray their workers with chemicals in order to evade spread of diseases by the workers. These are hindrance to the freedoms of the individuals and have negative impact in the society. Furthermore, huge corporations fail to disclose vital
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Mass midia - Essay Example Information sharing in digital platform has formed the newest trend in mass communication. Digital media, such as social sites and digital newspapers has enhanced the feedback process in terms of speed, accuracy and availability of specific information about respondents (Campbell 2012). Traditional mass media includes radio, televisions, newspapers and magazines. The feedback mechanism in these media is complex in nature due to lengthy manual process. Submitting a feedback to a media house regarding a program involves writing a letter to the program manager or a newspaper editor. This process is tedious in nature and can sometimes be futile. This is because the feedback letters may get misplaced or loss due to incorrect addresses. In addition, the process takes a lot of time and the feedback may lose its importance during transit. The cost of tendering a feedback is a hindrance in traditional mass media. This is because sending of feedback is requires posting letters that may not be beneficial to the audience. As such, traditional means of mass media receive less feedback. Digital feedback mechanisms have proven to be more efficient and are already phasing out traditional feedback mechanism. This is because many mass media platforms have gone online where respondents can post feedback at the click of a button. This makes the feedback process costless and thus more feedback is received. In addition to quick tendering of feedbacks, the editors of the news receive the feedbacks immediately and may respond accordingly. This enhances the relationship between the audience and the news media (Levine 2012). This has an overall advantage of expanding the audience base of the digital media platforms. Moreover, feedback in digital media has been boosted by the fact that the audience can chat and discuss over contentious issues. This creates royalty between the audience and the news vendor. From the feedbacks received, the number of
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Relationship Between Business and IT Strategies at PRASA 1 Introduction 4.1 BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH PROBLEM For almost three decades practitioners, academics, consultants, and research organizations have identified Ã¢â¬Å"attaining alignment between IT and businessÃ¢â¬ as a pervasive problem, Luftman and Kempaiah (2007). Gutierrez,Nawazish,Orozco,Serrano and Yazdouni (2007) add that despite the wide acceptance of strategic alignment (the strategic use of Information Technology), there is no consensus on how to achieve alignment and with few references that detail the process, there is no common agreement on the term alignment. Terminology such as linkage Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) harmony, integrated, linked, and synchronocity Luftman and Kempaiah (2007) have been suggested and used. Steiner (1979b) points out that there no consensus as to the meaning of strategy in the business world. An example of the definitions which he uses include the following Steiner (1979a): Strategy is that what executives do they that empower the organization. Strategy is the direction the organization takes which is aligned with itÃ¢â¬â¢s purposes and missions. Strategy consists of the important activities necessary to realize these directions. Strategy answers the question: What should the organization be doing to achieve success? Strategy answers the question: What are the means to end? Mintzberg (1994), says that people use strategy in several different ways, the most common being: Strategy is a plan, a how, a means of getting from here to there. Strategy is a pattern in actions over time; for example, a company that regularly markets very expensive products is using a high end strategy. Strategy is perspective, that is, vision and direction. Strategy is position; that is, it reflects decisions to offer particular products or services in particular markets. Porter (1998) states that strategy positioning attempts to achieve sustainable competitive advantage by preserving what is distinctive about a company and that strategy, is the creation of a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities, requires that trade-offs be made in competing, to chose what not to do and involves creating Ã¢â¬Å"fitÃ¢â¬ among a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Fit has to do with the ways a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activities interact and reinforce one another. To improve the strategic management of information technology, Henderson and Venkatraman (1993), developed a framework which they called the Strategic Alignment Model (SAM). This model was defined in terms of four fundamental domains of strategic choice namely business strategy, information technology strategy, organizational infrastructure and processes and information technology infrastructure and processes. The model is defined in terms of two fundamental characteristics of strategic management namely the strategic fit (the interrelationship between external and internal components) and functional integration (integration between business and functional domains). Luftman (2001) improved on the Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) SAM model by developing the Strategic Alignment Maturity Model (SAMM). The model measures ITÃ¢â¬âbusiness alignment maturity. Six interrelated components for assessing alignment maturity are identified. These are communications, value, governance, partnership, scope and architecture and skills. The scores an organization achieves for these six components of maturity are then compared to a five-level maturity model to denote the organization IT-business alignment maturity Luftman (2001).The levels range from level one to level five where level five is the highest level of maturity. A higher alignment maturity correlates with higher firm performance measures Luftman (2001). Tying performance measures to strategic goals is a critical step Fonvielle and Carr (2001). A tool to measure performance and to align strategic goals within organisations is the Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The BSC was developed by Kaplan and Norton (1992) to overcome the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on financial measures. They contend that reliance on only financial measures does not give a complete overview of the organisations measures. The BSC provided a framework to look at strategy, used for value creation from four different perspectives these being financial, customer, internal business process and innovation and learning Kaplan and Norton (1992).One of the principles recommended by the authors, is that for an organization to be focused on strategy, there needs to be alignment among departments to the strategy of the organisation. The alignment sequence recommended by Kaplan and Norton (2006) starts when the corporate headquarters articulates enterprise value proposition that wil l create synergies among operating units, support units and external partners. This sequence includes aligning IT strategy with the business strategy. 4.1 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM Business and IT strategies at PRASA need to be better aligned. 4.1 What is passenger rail agency of south africa (PRASA)? Appendix A, gives a comprehensive overview of the historical context and the introduction of PRASA taken from the companieÃ¢â¬â¢s business plan. Following is a summary of the key issues PRASA was created by Government to advance its agenda for the transformation of the public transport system into a vibrant, efficient one, As part of its strategy, PRASA (2009), to secure the future of its business, PRASA will focus its resources and energies during the current medium term expenditure framework (METF) on the following three Strategic Priorities: Service Excellence within Metrorail, Shosholoza Meyl and Autopax Property and Asset Development, and Technology Upgrade or Modernization of its key transport systems The key objectives identified by Government in addressing the challenges of passenger rail transport moving forward PRASA (2009) are as follows: Sustainable passenger rail service delivery; Improved performance of passenger rail services in terms of the quality and levels of services to passengers; Improved efficiency in the delivery of services; Improved effectiveness of asset management; Effective targeting of subsidies to achieve desired socio-economic transport objectives; Improved oversight by Government; and Improved accountability to the users. 4.1 Why prasa? PASSENGER TRANSPORT CHANGE IMPERATIVES 1..1 The Public Transport Challenge After many years of neglect, the existing commuter transport system, inherited from the apartheid past, has reached saturation levels and is unable to satisfy passenger demands while its infrastructure is not able to meet the requirements of a rapidly changing and modern society. The dysfunctional institutional arrangements have meant poor accountability in the provision of public transport services, which were found to be largely disempowering. GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic and transport policies could not be supported adequately by such institutional arrangements. The country is seeking to move away from the current commuter-based transport provision into a more integrated public transport system that meets growing and changing passenger demands in an efficient, effective and sustainable manner. The twin challenges for public transport is to simultaneously transform through meaningful integration whilst at the same time enhancing capacity through upgrading and modernization to meet long-term need PRASA (2009). 1..2 Inadequate Passenger Service Provision Passenger rail in South Africa faces many challenges as a result of a long history of inadequate investment in rail rolling stock, infrastructure and operations as well as the loss of appropriate managerial and technical (engineering) skills within the industry. The shortage of such critical skills has a direct negative impact on the delivery of services. In the urbanising metropolitan areas the provision of new rail corridors has not kept pace with the rapidly changing urban landscape resulting in limited coverage in key areas of urban expansion with the consequential loss of significant market share. Over time, commuter rail services have continued to fail to respond adequately to changing passenger demands PRASA (2009). 1..3 Customer-Centric Delivery A dynamic and customer-centric public transport system is required where passengers contribute to and shape the service delivery agenda. The need for a Passenger or Quality Charter and the emergence of strong, vibrant structures championing both the interests of passengers and public transport transformation are vital to the development of a public transport system that will effectively respond to the travelling needs of passengers. The past few years has seen the emergence of vibrant, community-based structures championing public transport transformation and demanding quality services from Government and transport service providers. This movement seems to be growing and shows the determination of South Africans to participate in the construction of a transport system that will effectively respond to their demands PRASA (2009). 4.1 PRASA Vision, Mission Values Vision A provider of integrated public transport solutions for improved mobility Two fundamental principles underpin the vision:- Integration Ã¢â¬â PRASA should facilitate integrating individuals and communities, enabling a better quality of life through access to socioeconomic opportunities Mobility Solutions Ã¢â¬â PRASA should connect individuals and communities through the provision of public transport solutions that are founded on an integrated network of mobility routes PRASA (2009) Mission Sustainable Public Transport Solutions through Service Excellence, Innovation and Modal Integration PRASA (n.d.) The mission reflects four key intentions:- Service excellence Ã¢â¬â superior performance that is safe, reliable and affordable, that makes a lasting impression, and builds brand loyalty Ã¢â¬â both internally (employees) and externally (customers) Ã¢â¬â that adds benefit to the passenger. Sustainability a focus on sustainable development in business that considers not just the financial Ã¢â¬Ëbottom lineÃ¢â¬â¢ of prosperity and profit, but also the other Ã¢â¬Ëbottom linesÃ¢â¬â¢ of environmental quality and social equity. Mobility solutions Ã¢â¬â reframing the basis of business delivery, favouring innovation, integration and partnerships Integration Ã¢â¬â safe, seamless dignified travel experiences across all modes of public transport, PRASA (n.d.) Values The values that will guide PRASA, which will underpin the performance ethos of the organization derived from and are guided by the fundamental and progressive human values of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa:- Service Excellence, Participation, Integrity, Fairness and Innovation, PRASA (2009) 4.1 OPPORTUNITY FOR Passenger Services 1..1 Commuter Rail Services The provision of efficient and affordable public passenger transport services is integral to GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s drive to create employment opportunities, stimulate economic development and reduce levels of poverty. Enhanced mobility will facilitate greater access to socio-economic opportunities for the urban and rural poor whilst contributing to an efficient transport system to the benefit of all South Africans Ã¢â¬â highlighting the need for a vibrant public passenger transport network to support sustainable growth and development PRASA (2009). Commuter rail has the potential to be the most efficient, affordable and safe mode of travel. It plays a significant role in key Metropolitan areas such as Cape Town and has the potential to become an important public transport player in all metropolitan areas, significantly contributing to an efficient and reliable public transport system in these areas. Despite the acknowledged increase in the growth of car-ownership and usage, public transport and walking continue to dominate the mobility needs of the majority of South Africans and this is likely to continue for the next decade. Metropolitan areas in South Africa are experiencing rapid urbanization. Rail is in a unique position to facilitate greater integration between land use planning and transport infrastructure provision, and providing security, to private and public sector investment, of stable long-term public transport provision. This is vital to creating sustainable communities where peoples access to economic and social o pportunities is improved. In this context, railway lines need to be positioned, located, aligned with evolving spatial developments and formalised within the statutory planning processes undertaken primarily by local government. The creation of PRASA and the integration of rail and road-based transport services will, over time, provide the user with public transport choices Ã¢â¬â moving away from a market of captive users to one where dignified travel choice is a real option PRASA (2009). 1..2 Inter-City / Regional Passenger Services Historically, long distance rail and road based services have not received the attention required to make them demand responsive in key market areas including migrant workers, students, tourists and occasional travellers. The Department of TransportÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Transport Strategy Action Plan notes that: There is a significant potential for the growth in migrant worker long distance public transport provision. The dominant generators of migrant movement are Gauteng and KZN The increase in tourism provides opportunities for segmenting the market that build upon the strengths of both long distance rail and coach operations. Rural areas in South Africa are undergoing a process of economic and social restructuring with a shift in emphasis towards rural trade and agro-processing. These factors reinforce the need for a public transport service sector that responds to the emerging needs of these rural / regional development nodes since transport links between the rural trade areas and t he rural regions (hinterlands) remains unreliable, rendering access to services and emerging economic opportunities extremely difficult. This lack of access will continue to trap many in the poverty cycle. GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to consolidate passenger rail entities and road-based long distance bus services into a single entity, PRASA, reporting to the Department of Transport are underpinned by a number of key drivers. The recognition by Government that rail consolidation was required to deal with the under-performance of rail passenger services as well as the historical under-investment in the passenger rail business. Institutional arrangements did not promote efficiency and accountability and significant change was required to overcome the inherent institutional dysfunctions that had been created. Confusion existed between the contractor and regulatory functions implicitly embodied in the SARCC/Transnet relationship PRASA (2009). The critical need for sustainable funding to reverse the decline in commuter rail levels of service being experienced by commuters has been identified. This funding profile was captured in the National Rail Plan, which was accepted by Cabinet in December 2006, where the funding and investment requirements were identified for passenger rail over the following ten years PRASA (2009). 4.1 PRASA Objective PRASA (n.d.) primary objective is: To ensure that at the request of the Department of Transport, rail commuter services are provided within, to and from the Republic in the public interest; and To provide, in consultation with the Department of Transport, for long haul passenger rail and bus services within, to and from the Republic in terms of the principles set out in section 4 of the National Land Transport Transition Act, 2000 (Act No.22 of 2000)Ã¢â¬ .. 4.1 Strategy of prasa PRASA (2009) objectives are supportive of the Board of ControlÃ¢â¬â¢s (BOC) key performance areas as seen in figure 2 below Figure 2 Key Performance Area and Strategic Objectives 4.1 CHALLENGES FACING PRASA 1..1 Consolidation / Turnaround / Restructuring The sequential amalgamation, in quick succession, of the SARCC, Metrorail, Shosholoza Meyl and Autopax bring with it the normal challenges that are posed when merging disparate organizations in related but different operational arenas. A key driver in GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to consolidate these entities into a single delivery arm of the DOT was to effect operational and asset Ã¢â¬Å"turnaroundÃ¢â¬ of what were acknowledged to be declining businesses, albeit, some with the potential for growth. Linked with both these processes is the need to internally restructure the various businesses to align them with the new mandate given to PRASA through the amendment to the Legal Succession Act that was promulgated on 23 December 2008 PRASA (2009). 1..2 Sustainable Funding The ability to provide the requisite level of funding (substantial) to address both the investment capital and rapidly expanding operational requirements to affect the mandate is fundamental to the successful performance of PRASA. The integrated passenger transport plan requirements will need to be developed. Fully motivated funding requirements, covering both operations and investment capital, in line with the 5-year financial plan requirements of the various Integrated Transport Plans (ITPs), will be developed to begin to align the funding requirements with statutory plan requirements. The approved funding base makes no provision for two key activities that need to be accommodated: The incorporation of Autopax, an operating company that is currently materially dependent upon Transnet Limited for funding to re-capitalize and sustain the business going forward. The acquisition of new rolling stock. Analysis has indicated that the rolling stock refurbishment and upgrading programs are not maintaining pace with the requirements to buy time before the inevitable purchasing of new fleet becomes unavoidable. While the profile reflects a rising trend in investment funding support, the allocation of these funds to the different asset classes (Rolling Stock Infrastructure) will need to be reviewed. A careful balance needs to be struck to ensure that the sustainability of the asset base is not compromised PRASA (2009). 1..3 Ageing Rolling Stock and Infrastructure PRASA (2009) reports that the prolonged under-investment in passenger rail of almost thirty years is manifestly experienced in the deterioration of the general rail asset i.e. Rolling Stock and Infrastructure (Signalling and telecommunications, electrical systems, perway). This has resulted in a situation where services are experiencing continued decline, primarily due to poor availability and reliability of rolling stock and ageing infrastructure. The lack of investment in the asset base has also had a negative impact in the skills base of the passenger rail industry over a period of time. For example, the average age profile of commuter coaches is 40 years and has been left behind by international advancements in rail technology over the past few decades. The life expectancy of railway rolling stock is of the order of 54 years. The railway industry norms are that the coaches will be upgraded at half life (27 years) and overhauled every 9 years, so as to ensure the structural and su b-systems integrity is not compromised by metal fatigue, age, wear and tear or environmental condition. Thirty-three percent (33%) of the commuter rail fleet is already above 36 years and therefore would be uneconomical to upgrade. 1..4 Human Capital Development Human capital development is generally understated and under-rated in supporting the development of an organization. It is a multi-faceted process that requires clear understanding to enable human capabilities to be built that will support the key performance drivers of the business and ultimately the business results that can be expected from that performance. The key challenge for PRASA is to formulate human capital development processes that facilitate and fast-track the appropriate human capital capabilities at all levels within the organization that will enable delivery on the key drivers of which, in the case of PRASA are : increased productivity (operational efficiencies), improved service quality (service excellence), customer focus and innovation in the provision of integrated public transport solutions The nature of the various operational divisions, while related and providing synergistic opportunities for service co-operation and delivery, are by their very nature, different business environments, each requiring a specific set of human capabilities to perform optimally. PRASA needs to provide guidance in the process framework that delivers this requirement PRASA (2009). 1..5 Change Management The finalisation of the PRASA consolidation process, the turnaround and restructuring necessitate that a number of parallel change management processes are undertaken. Numerous change management processes will be identified that are needed to combine the five organizations into a consolidated organization. The very ability of PRASA to ensure effective implementation of such processes becomes critical as is the capacity of the organization (including divisions and subsidiaries) to manage them successfully PRASA (2009). 1..6 Leadership Skills Development There is currently an acknowledged shortage of key skills as well as a lack of depth of skills in critical areas within the organization. For PRASA to meet the expanded mandate of supporting governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic and transport objectives in both urban and rural contexts, the organization will need a focused approach to human capital development, on leadership development, talent management and the progressive training of a strong base of key skills that will lay the foundation for sustaining rail passenger transport sector PRASA (2009). 1..7 Rail Technology Development PRASA, of necessity, will need to become a technology based organization that blends best practice policies with intelligent asset management philosophies to leverage organisational productivity and efficiency gains to provide shareholder value. PRASA recognises that technology upgrade is critical to the modernisation of South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s railways and is well aware that the capacity for technology upgrade may not be immediately available in South Africa or the African Continent as a whole. Technological obsolescence is a major factor that will inhibit PRASA from delivering on its mandate. A rail technical strategy that guides technological renewal, upgrading, replacement and development over the next 30 years is a critical requirement. The average age of the metropolitan rail commuter networks/system in South Africa ranges between 60 80 years and still supports 1940/50Ã¢â¬â¢s technology. The system in SA is showing serious age related condition decline with increasing systemic risks and technological obsolescence. Railway systems are designed for an extended economic life, but it is acknowledged that the current ad hoc investment flows into the ageing system in South Africa are not productive in terms of future demand, operational performance requirements and escalating maintenance costs. Global technology advancement in rail has moved beyond the limited application of heavy rail, regional and long distance passenger rail. Various new rail based technologies of alternative applications have evolved globally to ensure the competitiveness and attractiveness of rail solutions. If South Africa is serious about ensuring environmentally friendly and energy efficient transportation for its cities to counter growth in private vehicle travel, congestion and spiralling cost of fossil fuels, a selective conversion of appropriate new and improved rail based and mass transit technologies needs to be evaluated, introduced, and established in South Africa ensuring that these take their place in the hierarchy of public transport service provision. The technological needs of PRASA over the next 30 years need to be clearly articulated and incorporated into PRASAÃ¢â¬â¢s long-term planning if passenger rail is to be sustained over the longer-term. The development of a rail technology strategy, together with the appropriate migration requirements over this period will assist in guiding decision-making in much critical technology upgrade or replacement areas within the organisation. The phased implementation of the strategy will be captured in each of the Business Plans roll-outs over time PRASA (2009). 4.1 RESEARCH AIM, QUESTION, SUB-QUESTIONS AND OBJECTIVES Research Aim The aim of this research is to understand to what extent alignment between Business and IT strategies exists, at the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA). Research Questions The research question derived from the problem statement is What can PRASA do to improve business and IT strategies, alignment? The sub questions to answer the main question are: What are business and IT strategies? What is alignment between business and IT strategies? What factors contribute to an alignment gap between business and IT strategies? What factors contributes to an improved alignment between business and IT strategies? Objectives of the research Based on the sub questions the objectives of the research are to 1. Analyse the BusinessÃ¢â¬â¢s and IT strategy 2. Carry out a literature review on the alignment between Business and IT strategies. 3. Analyse the factors that contribute towards Alignment Gap 4. a. Establish strategic alignment best practice. b. Formulate a methodology for aligning Business and IT strategies. c. Propose recommendations to improve PRASAÃ¢â¬â¢s Business and IT strategies alignment. 4.1 CURRENT STATUS OF THE RESEARCH AREA The literature review will be based on the research into alignment of business and IT strategies. There is a plethora of research available on the alignment of business and IT strategies. Chan and Reich (2007) have carried out comprehensive research on this topic. 4.1 Business and IT strategies 1..1 Business Strategies Croteau and Bergeron (2001) define business strategy as Ã¢â¬Å"the outcomes of decisions made to guide an organisation with respect to the environment, structure and processes that influence itÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational performanceÃ¢â¬ . Hambrick (1980) states that business strategies may be textual, multivariate or typological. Henderson and Venkatraman (1993) architects of the SAM model, view strategy as involving both strategy formulation (decisions pertaining to competitive, product market choices) and strategy implementation (choices that pertain to the structure and capabilities of the firm to execute itÃ¢â¬â¢s product market choices).The SAM model presents two business strategy perspectives where business strategy is the driver namely strategic execution, and technology transformation. figure 3 presents the key attributes of these perspectives. Figure 3 Attributes of Business Strategy perspectives (Henderson Venkatraman 1993) One of the six components of the SAMM Luftman and Kempaiah (2007), is partnership which includes ITÃ¢â¬â¢s role in defining the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies. Both of these models (SAM and SAMM) are about aligning business and IT strategies and can be criticised because it does not define what business strategy is. Kay (1996) says that there is much debate on the substance but that
Friday, January 17, 2020
As we compare to Japanese and American culture we can more or less comment on why GM was having difficulties while learning from the ANNUM experience. The GM plant in Fremont, California was opened in 1963 and closed down in 1982 due to bottom ranked in productivity among GM plants and the reputation of the worst quality cars in the entire GM system. The major problem was heavily relying on mistrust and fairness between management and union.Whereas Toyota at Annum showed the importance of using all means available to establish a climate of fairness such as flat organization, fewer levels of management, no exclusive bonuses and no distinctions between managers and team members such as using the same cafeteria for lunch or no dress differences. The core values were customer satisfaction by means of high quality and low cost, dignity, trust, teamwork, consistency, continual improvement. This sort of approaches was quite different from happily American manufacturing culture as well as it s culture itself.Japanese already discovered that in order to maintain waste free and high quality production they have to work well with people work on the line and provide them to the same privilege as white collar employees. Employees In most Japanese companies stay In the companies from low position to higher position and they generally work In the companies for their whole career. In the U. S. Companies often go through massive reorganization, therefore employees will be promoted or laid off.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Identity development is a fluid process throughout the human life cycle. Seemingly, adolescence, development after the age of 12 through young adulthood, is the most difficult transitive period in the life cycle. Adolescence is a critical time for a human, because it is the period when various personal roles are examined and one tries to assimilate these roles into a perception of self. Adolescents are struggling to identify different areas in their life such as religious preferences, sexuality, future careers, and hobbies. According to Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman (2013): Arriving at answers to such questions is among the most important tasks people face in life. Without answers, a person will not be prepared to make such majorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Each theory emphasizes different roles in human life development. Presentation of the Seminal Points of Each Theory Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial theory consists of eight distinct stages of human development; Stage 1: Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust, Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt, Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt, Stage 4: Industry Versus Inferiority, Stage 5: Identity Versus Role Confusion, Stage 6: Intimacy Versus Isolation, Stage 7: Generativity Versus Stagnation, and Stage 8: Ego Integrity Versus Despair. Erikson asserts that each stage of human development is a crisis and that successful coping in each stage allows the human to advance to the next stage of life with mental health. For the purposes of comparison, the focus will be on Stage 5: Identity Versus Role Confusion, as this stage addresses the crisis of the adolescent years. Lawrence KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Moral Development consists of three level and six stages that a human progresses through in life, while gaining a deeper concept to their moral development. Lev el 1: Pre-conventional; Stage1: Punishment and obedience orientation, Stage 2: NaÃ ¯ve instrumental hedonism, Level 2: Conventional; Stage 3: Ã¢â¬Å"Good boy/girl moralityÃ¢â¬ , Stage 4: Authority-maintaining morality, Level 3: Post-conventional; Stage 5 Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law, and Stage 6: